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翻译中易犯的错误(二)
2010-01-13

        三、机械翻译导致误译
        经验不丰富的翻译比较容易犯的一个毛病就是过于机械地、字对字地翻译。由于中、外文在词语、句型等方面有差异,一种语言中的词语不一定都能在另一种语言中找到对应语,死译很容易造成误译。
        例1 某省博物馆有一个出售纪念品的商店,门口挂着一块中英文对照的牌子:“外宾服务部”,英文译名是Foreign Guests Department.不懂中文的外宾看了英文译名可能会以为这是外宾接待室。店名可意译为:Souvenior Shop。

        例2 我一位前国家领导人与一位来访的外国政要会见时说的第一句活是:老朋友来了,不见不行。
        这句话不能直译为: It won’t do if I refuse to meet my old friend.这样翻译会被误认为是:讲话者本想拒绝,但行不通,才不得不见。而这句话的实际意思是:老朋友来了,我怎么能不见呢?!是表示一定要见的心情。可译为:When an old friend comes, I won’t miss the opportunity of meeting him.

        例3 发展中国家人回众多,地域辽阔,资源丰富,市场广阔,拥育巨大的发展潜力。
        初译: Given their large population, vast territories, abundant resources and big market, the developing countries have enormous potential for development.
        初译文所表达的意思是,各个发展中国家都“人回众多……”。这显然与实际情况不符。世界上有不少发展中国家人口少,面积小。原文是把发展中国家作为一个整体来看的。似可译为:Given the large population, vast territory, abundant resources and big market, the developing world has enormous potential for development.

        例4 外部必要的调解介入,要注意严格遵循国际法的基本原则。
        初译: The necessary outside intervention and mediation should be based on the strict observance of the basic principles of international law.
        我们通常反对外部干预。这句话强调的是,必要时可以引进外部调解,但必须遵循国际法。而初译文中“必要”一词所放的位置不对,有可能使人误解为,其他的外部调解不用遵循国际法。碰到这种情况,可重新组织句子,译为:Outside intervention and mediation may be resorted to when necessary, provided that the basic principles of international law are strictly observed.

        例5 这些援助数额有限,但不附加任何政治条件。
        初译:Although limited in quantity, the assistance has no political conditions attached.
        此译文的毛病是,把“援助”当成了“附加条件”这一动作的发出者。应译为:Our assistance, though limited, is granted with no political conditions attached.

        例6 今年,xxx访问了六个非洲国家,涉足非洲大陆东西南北,实际上是一次面向整个非洲的访问。
        初译:The visit by x x x to six African countries this year covered the eastern, western, southern and northern parts of Africa and it was actually towards the whole of Africa.
        Vist是具体的动作,不能说对六个国家的访问就是对整个非洲的访问。因此不搭配。原文的意思是,访问选择位于非洲东南西北各个地区的几个国家是有象征意义的,是考虑到了整个非洲,象征了对整个非洲的访问。似可译为:X x x paid a visit to six African countries, covering the eastern, southern, western and northern parts of the African continent, and symbolizing a visit to the whole Africa.

        例7 我们愿按平等互利、互通有无、取长补短的原则扩大经贸关系。
        初译:We are ready to expand our foreign economic relations and trade on the basis of equality and mutual benefit, the exchange of needed goods and drawing upon each other’s strong points.
        这里的“取长补短”主要指互相补缺,补充说明“互通有无”,与通常所说道优、缺点互补不同。可译为:We wish to see our economic relations and trade expanded on the basis of equality, mutual benefit, exchange of needed goods and mutual complementarity.

        例8 我们有八个民主党派,这是历史形成的传统。
        初译:There are 8 democratic parties in China as a result of historical tradition.
        这样翻译,意思不明确。而且,tradition与result不搭配。这句话的意思是,八个民主党派是在历史演变中诞生的。或者说,是在当时的历史条件下产生的。可译为:There are 8 democratic parties in China which grew out of historical evolution (or which were born under the then conditions).

        例9 宗教不得干预政治。
        初译:Religion must not interfere in politics.
        这句话的实际含义是,不得以宗教的名义来干预政治。可译为:It is impermissible to interfere in politics in the name of religion.

        例10 The overhaul of the Queensland Industrial Relations legislation in 1990 provided a framework for productivity increase and harmony in the workplace.
        初译:1990年昆士兰工业关系法的出台为增产和工厂和谐提供了一个框架。
        在资本主义国家里,“industrial relations”指劳资关系,可译为:1990年全面修改的昆士兰劳资关系法为增产和工厂的和谐提供了一个框架。

 

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